Wednesday, October 24, 2007

Minimalist Footwear.

Many people seem interested in the shoes I wear, so I thought I'd write a post here so that my stock answer is in one place instead of writing the same thing over and over again. So, here goes: my running footwear history/philosophy.

I've been running in something other than conventional trainers for almost four years now. My initial interest in wearing a more basic, simple, lightweight, low-profile shoe occurred when a physical therapist prescribed rock-hard fiberglass custom orthotics and motion control shoes for me to get over some chronic hip problems I was having in my sophomore year of high school (1999). At the time, I was excited because the new inserts seemed to help immensely to keep me injury-free, but in the back of my mind was the previous years of empirical evidence that I had that suggested that a more simple mode of footwear was sufficient.

When I started running in 1995 I wore a pair of circa 1980 Nike Waffle Trainers (something like the Nike Cortez's) that I picked up in a Goodwill store for a dollar or so. I ended up putting about 3000 miles on these shoes before the sole completely separated from the upper and Shoe Goo wouldn't hold it anymore. Over the year and a half or so that I wore these shoes (including finishing my first marathon in 3:50:11 at age 12 in Okoboji, IA) I was tiny--about 4'10'' and 75-80 lbs. Yet, in later years, I could never get out of my mind the thought that I ran all of those miles injury-free in such a simple shoe; nor could I ignore all of the historical photos I saw of runners from the 1960s and 1970s racing and training in completely flat-soled shoes with little to no cushioning. I read about Frank Shorter, Jeff Galloway, and Jack Bacheler logging 170+ mile weeks in Vail, CO in preparation for the 1972 Olympic Trials and then would see pictures of them on training runs wearing basically racing flats.

However, it wasn't until early 2004 when a good friend of mine on the Colorado College XC team,
Kiran Moorty, started talking about the benefits of running in "minimalist" shoes that I started actively researching the notion and worked up enough interest to pursue the concept myself. (Notice Kiran racing barefoot in that link--he went on to finish about seven seconds out of All-American in that race. Another good friend of mine, Julian Boggs, finished 3rd at NCAA Div. III XC Nationals last year running barefoot. Boggs also paced for me in the 2006 LT100.)

Up until that spring, I'd run exclusively in motion-control or stability shoes with the same fiberglass custom orthotics. But, I was becoming pretty fed up with the clunkiness and general unwieldy nature of my footwear/orthotics and was simultaneously becoming interested in the apparent injury-prevention benefits of running in very minimal, flexible shoes. This led to doing research on the evolution of running, human physiology, primitive running tribes, etc. to the point that I thought--despite the risks--I should give it a shot myself.

Starting in March of 2004 I gradually started doing runs without my orthotics. I began with maybe 30 minutes a few times a week and over the course of 2 weeks or so built up to doing all of my running(100-120mpw at the time) without the orthotics. I was wearing the
Asics GT 2070s at the time. At the end of this period I had one 21 mile long run where I started out with the orthotics in, but my lower legs hurt so I took them out after 3 miles and my legs immediately felt better and my pace instantly dropped over 30 seconds per mile. It was one of the most amazing, epiphanal runs of my life.  At this same time, I began to consciously pay attention to my form.  I was traditionally a full-on heel-striker, but now began trying to run with a shorter, quicker, lighter stride, higher cadence, and more of a mid-foot/fore-foot strike.

From there I went to an alleged racing flat--the
Nike TC Triax (now discontinued, but it is on the beefier side...I would compare it to the present-day Nike Marathoners). The move to these was fairly quick--less than a week--and then over the course of the next month I moved down to Asics DS-Racers and then the New Balance 240s...a very light, flexible flat. The New Balances were the first shoe I cut the heel off of in order to make it equal to the forefoot height so as to increase ankle mobility in my running gait. I was fully transitioned into the New Balances by the middle of June of 2004--a full three months after I'd first started ditching my orthotics; to be sure, it's a slow process. I also did a lot of running in the Asics 15-50 XC flat during this time.

In May, I started doing some barefoot running to further strengthen my feet and aid in making the minimalist transition. Initially, this was only 10minutes or so--all on grass--tacked onto the ends of my usual training runs. I also started going barefoot as much as possible in every-day life (walking around campus, going to class, getting kicked out of a lot of stores, etc.). By the end of June I was up to 30 minute runs completely barefoot, and by August I was completely comfortable doing hour runs totally barefoot (still, all on grass/dirt with small amounts of pavement). During that summer I also did a lot of "nearly barefoot" hiking on all sorts of terrain in a pair of water socks that were basically less sophisticated versions of the Vibram FiveFingers. I summitted
Humphreys Peak in Arizona, hiked the North Bright Angel trail to Phantom Ranch and back, and hiked to Havasu Falls and back (20 miles roundtrip) in my water socks (I was living in Flagstaff, AZ that summer).

In August, I started running in
Puma H-Streets very regularly---basically for all of my running. These are absolutely beautiful minimalist shoes that are, unfortunately, discontinued. They have been updated with the Puma Saloh that I am interested in trying out but I'm not interested in all of the new synthetic overlays. The H Street was such a great shoe (I would put 1000-1500 miles on a pair--long after my foot would start poking out the side of the upper) that I never really endeavored to go for anything lower than this. I once ran to the top of Pikes Peak and back in the H Streets, but couldn't go as fast as I wanted on the way down because of the lack of protection. However, in the spring/summer of 2005 I logged several 200 mile weeks and a couple 30 and 40 milers in nothing but H Streets. Their main drawback was their lack of traction. The outsole was nothing but little nubbins that I would wear down fairly quickly. These shoes look to me to be a good update to the H Street with greater traction and durability (but, probaby a bit heavier).

So, for me, the meat of the transition (down to truly "flat" shoes and substantial barefoot running) took 3-4 months.

When I hear people say that they could never run in more minimal shoes--that it would tear their body up--I agree, because without the proper adapation period immediately starting to run in flatter, more flexible shoes for all of their running would be a horrible idea. Transitioning to these types of shoes should include a gradual enough increase in workload that the feet/legs are never unduly sore. It's a matter of astutely listening to one's body.

So, one might ask, why don't you do all of your running in the Puma H Streets or a cross-country flat (if I'm so in love with those shoes)? Well, because I've found that running on rocky trails does indeed require a bit of protection, too, if I want to be able to run as fast as I possibly can over that terrain. Up until July of 2006 I was doing all of my running either barefoot, in water socks, or in the H Streets or some XC flats. However, in the Leadville Marathon that year I bruised my forefoot while bombing down the exceedingly rocky descent in that race while wearing the Puma La Bamba. These shoes have even thinner forefoots than it looks in the picture.

I decided that if I wanted to continue running and racing the Rocky Mountain trails that I love I needed a little bit more protection. So, I went out and bought a pair of La Sportiva Slingshots--still the beefiest shoes I've run in in the past four years. Although they aren't my absolutely ideal shoe, they are definitely one of the best things out there in the trail running market that I've found. I really like their thin midsole through the midfoot and forefoot, but the heel is still too built up for me, so that's where my major modification comes in.

To lower the heel, I take a serrated kitchen knife and slice off the outsole and a lot of the midsole of the back half of the shoe. I basically start right behind the grey, hard plastic external heel counter and then cut all the way up until about the "Frixion" logo in the midfoot portion of the outsole. This way, the sole thickness is pretty much even all the way from the forefoot to the rearfoot.

The other things I do to the Slingshots is cut an inch or so off the top of the tongue and then pull all the foam padding out of the tongue; I like the fit better and it cuts weight and doesn't soak up as much water. I also remove the insoles to reduce weight and have a better feel for the trail.

With the Slingshots, I would much prefer a more "racing flat" fit and feel to them, more akin with a road shoe, but it seems almost every company is kind of averse to this. I suspect they're afraid of cramping the toebox so that people don't lose toenails or that they think the upper materials necessary for such a fit aren't durable enough. However, I wore the Slingshots in both the 2006 Leadville Trail 100 and the 2007 Rocky Raccoon 100.

The other shoe that I've been very happy with is the Inov-8 f-lite 250. This shoe best mimics the racing flat type fit that I've been looking for in a trail running shoe. I also shave a bit off the heel of these and remove the insoles. I wore these shoes quite satisfactorily in the 2007 Leadville Trail 100.

I end up wearing the Sportivas and Inov-8s for my typical morning mountain runs of 3hrs or longer and I wear a dilapidated pair of Puma H Streets for my evening runs of 1-2hrs on less gnarly trails. I am looking forward to trying out the Vibram FiveFingers as an alternative to barefoot in colder climates (I now live in Bozeman, afterall) and, hopefully, for my evening runs as a replacement to the H Streets.

What are the reasons for wanting to run in minimalist shoes? Almost all shoes (even many racing flats) have an unnecessary amount of rise from the forefoot to the rearfoot. By training in a shoe with this sort of heel lift, the Achilles tendon is constantly shortened and underworked with each step. The raised heel also limits the range of motion in the ankle upon footstrike and promotes a heelstrike instead of a more midfoot or forefoot initial footplant. 

One’s footplant while running barefoot is much different than while running with shoes. If one were to run barefoot across a stretch of asphalt, I guarantee that he or she wouldn’t run with a heelstrike for very long! Thus, a big motivating factor—for me—in wearing minimalist shoes is to encourage my body to adopt a running gait (shorter, quicker strides that land closer to the body's center of mass) that will allow my feet to take advantage of the most natural cushioning mechanism that was built into our anatomy—the resilience of the Achilles tendon, calf muscles, and ankle joint. 

Running with a fore-to-midfoot strike in minimalist shoes almost completely disallows overstriding; increases one’s agility on uneven terrain (a definite plus in trail running); strengthens all of the often overlooked supportive muscles, tendons and ligaments of the feet and lower legs; and, in the end, hopefully cultivates a more propulsive, strong, less injury-prone stride. Decent slow-motion shots of the kind of footplant and running style I'm talking about can be seen in this video clip. (For a better look, download the file here.) If one looks closely, he or she can see that the initial contact with the ground is with my outer forefoot; I then roll in, touch down with my heel, and push off (I'm not just running exclusively "on my toes").

Additionally, I am a big proponent of simplifying my life (and thus, my running), and believe that the human body was meant to run, and that simple biological evolution couldn’t have been so wrong, so why not let the foot and lower leg do what it was designed to do (
I've read many peer-reviewed articles that have concluded that the human body evolved to run) and not inhibit it with some big clunky shoe? 

Of course, basically from birth, the majority of the human population is corrupted by being placed in very “supportive” almost cast-like shoes and our feet and lower legs become very weak. I myself used to run in so-called stability shoes with hard plastic, custom orthotics, but over the past three years I’ve tried--and succeeded in--leaving those albatrosses behind. 
Because so many folks have grown up wearing shoes and the medical industry constantly pushes more and more restrictive orthotics and shoes that simply weaken the foot further, most people can’t imagine running hundreds and thousands of miles over rocky trails in such flimsy flats as I do. It’s something that needs to be worked up to gradually, but I believe that as long as the running surface is natural (no concrete, asphalt, etc.) the human foot is well-designed to handle any running stress we’re willing to impart on it (provided you give it enough adaptive time).


Jasper said...


Ideally, I agree with you, but do you think this kind of approach can work for those of us not blessed with great biomechanics? Do you think the body can still adapt to running a lot of miles in minimalist footwear?

I ask because I've also been working towards wearing more lightweight flexible shoes over the years (the Inov-8 Roclite 305 is my current 100-mile shoe of choice). But I find that if I spend too much time (especially on roads) in flats or lightweight trainers I always start to get medial knee pain - which I'm guessing is because of my leg-length imbalance and just slightly non-neutral footplant.

I know you said you used to wear orthotics - what was that for? I'm just wondering if there are some biomechanics for which minimalist footwear will never work.



Anton said...

Hi Jasper,
I really don't know how barefoot running would work for someone with less than perfect mechanics. Apparently, a number of medical professionals thought that I didn't have perfect, neutral mechanics, or else I don't know why they would've fit me with custom orthotics and told me to wear them the rest of my life.

One thing I do know about "stability" and motion control, though, is that once the foot isn't elevated on the high platform of a typical running shoe, it is inherently a lot more stable. BUT, i'm by no means an expert on any of this and don't know how anyone else's body would respond to the things i've done to mine.

So, i'm not sure what to suggest. It seems like you're experimenting and seeing where your limits are, and that's about all i could suggest to do. The only other thing I can say is just to reiterate that any transition needs to be a gradual process--it can't be rushed and you have to listen to your body.


tc said...

Thanks Tony for such a detailed write up. Hopefully you will enjoy the Vibram FiveFingers as much as I have. You may need to wear the Surge during the coldest days. They are bulky compared to the Sprint or Classic, but they at least have 2mm of neoprene to keep those toes a little warmer.


kfine39 said...


As you first post suggests -- I am one of those people who have interest in what you have to say...

I am curious... footwear is always a point of interest... is eating habits another? What does the typical daily diet look like...

Sorry for the mundane... but inquiring minds want to know!


Kevin in Indy.

Ben, aka BadBen said...


I loved this post!
I don't have the biomechanically-perfect body for running long distances, (supposedly)...I've got flat feet, asthma, and a previous history of multiple foot and toe bone breaks from my martial arts days.
My podiatrist(s) in the past put me in hard orthotics and I gravitated to clunky motion-control shoes. I ran on pavement for many years, and had continual-chronic injuries...PF, sciatica, knee issues, etc.

I started running on trails exclusively a few years ago. Almost right away, I needed a lower-heeled, and more flexible shoe; I also got rid of the orthotics, as I found them counter-productive on the trails. It was like a miracle. ALL of my chronic injuries went away. I even started a trailrunning group, because of my newly found "path" in life.

While I can't get away with super-minimalist shoes like you, I do gravitate to the lightest, most flexible trail shoes that I can find (that fit my huge, flat feet).

So, I would add that humans evolved to run long distances (to run-down game); we are the ruling "long-distance running species" on this planet. But we were "biomechanically" never meant to run on ARTIFICIALLY FLAT AND HARD SURFACES like pavement and concrete. Our bodies adapt to trailrunning, because it is the natural thing to do.

Happy trails,
Bad Ben

PS: I really enjoyed seeing you run at RR100, this past Feb. I was having a tough day, but still managed to finish my 5th RR100 in a row.

Victor said...


Enjoyed reading your post. Very inspirational. I've been running barefoot exclusively for 8 1/2 years and can't even imagine running with shoes any more. I'm not a long distance runner like you and at 45 years of age, don't have the unlimited energy I had as a 20 year old. Nevertheless, I still love to run (mainly because it's fun and enjoyable, especially barefoot) and I run several times a week. I've completed a half marathon and a 10 miler barefoot and plan on running a marathon someday.

Your comments all line up nicely with what I've been reading over the years on the running barefoot group on Yahoo. I've not had any problems running on asphalt or concrete, although I do prefer a variety of running surfaces - especially a wet sandy beach!

Look forward to your future stories/comments.


Josue said...

It is very refreshing to read a write-up on minimalist footwear from an incredible and accomplished ultra-runner.
I am a barefoot and minimalist runner and mostly use Barefoot Ted's Huaraches or Five Finger's.
I am not at the point where I can race 100s completely barefoot or in huaraches, so I was very glad to see your Slingshot modifications. I have a pair of FireBlades I bought for racing, but they are still high heels. I will spend my afternoon modifying them.

kiskiw said...


This doesn't really have anything to do with this thread but I was wondering if you could tell us about some of your favorite books, I think that everyone would be interested in seeing some of the books that have shaped your personality as well as your world view and why!

Thanks again for all your posts they are very interesting and motivating!


KendraBo said...

Tony, I'm just curious: when you got your stress fracture in your metatarsal, did your minimalist footwear practices come into question at all, either by you or, say, anyone else? I assume something else was to blame, like not giving it enough of the adaptive time you mention? I wish you continued, rapid healing.

Lindsay said...

Just a quick question or two for clarification. I understand the need for more shoe than the H street but why not wear more of a true flat like your New Balance rather than the sportiva of especially the inov-8(which is as light as a road flat and with about the same traction)? I would assume that you just run shoes into the ground since you are not big on extra cushioning and once your foot is conditioned there is no need to swap shoes every 500 miles, etc?

aerojust said...


I know this is an old post, but Irunfar Bryon has linked to it and I found it very interesting. I too was fitted into ridgid orthotics and stability shoes. I found the orthotics to make me feet weak and as soon as I tried to do anything barefoot I was screwed with pain from my slight tarsal coalition. This really flared up just before my attempt at Massanutten this year. I wore the orthotics in that race and ended up dropping at 70 miles from foot pain. I have stopped using the orthotics and have had no issue since. I am always bear foot when it is feasible. You have inspired me to break the mold and slowly try to transitions into a more minimal / neutral shoe.

Thanks man, Keep running hard!


Alicia said...

Fantastic blog! I have recently decided to find a running style and philosophy, if you will, that makes sense in the most natural of ways. I think your head is in the right spot on this one and I plan on looking into it further!

worm said...

great write-up. i just linked over here from irunfar.

after wearing orthotics for the past two years i spent the summer running and racing without them. prior to the summer i had worked with a physical therapist to improve my gait with a more neutral footstrike and stride like what you talk about.

my feet felt fine and i had no problems until two weeks after my last race (24 mile trail run). at that time my inner ankle starting having pain upon raising my toes.

now, according to an orthopedist, i have pulled an ankle tendon and have been prescribed new orthotics which i am supposed to never be without.

in your opinion, should i wait until the tendon no longer hurts and then start back with minimal footwear running? i'm at a loss b/c i want to be able to run without the klunkiness but also without injury and pain...

any advice would be awesome. thanks!

Randall Barna said...

I'm a Certified Pedorthist and just posted a blog entry about minimalist footwear. As successful as your experience has been with this type of shoe, some athletes have extenuating conditions that don't make this the best running shoe technology for them. Check out my post for more info.

Michael said...

Hi Tony and everyone,

As a barefoot running coach, I've found that people who are NOT blessed with "perfect" biomechanics need to go the minimalist approach the most. That's because the minimal approach helps you to feel the ground and find a softer, better stride. Studies show that cushioned shoes create a poor stride (heel strike) and are quite damaging to the feet and knees over time...the studies show we're putting 200 to 300% more force down on the ground in a heavily cushioned shoe than a minimalist one or barefoot...

That kind of force doesn't lie...if you're not 'perfect''s the SHOES that will beat you up.

Go minimalist...feel the ground and you'll begin to tread lightly and find your own perfect form!

~Michael Sandler
Coach, The Barefoot Running Club

Mike Scammon said...

Wow, an aging post revived.

I am 6-0 and about 200. This July I ran the Pacifica 50K in my very favorite Nike Katana Rac3r III flats. They were wonderful. Of course some granite sections had me scampering a little more than usual but otherwise there were no issues. The "charts that be" tell me I should be in a stability shoe for over pronators, though they have done nothing but hurt my running. It took me about 6 months (maybe a little less) to taper down to running in flats but it was well worth it. It forced me to correct my form, and as a result, a lingering hip issue (rt leg) and knee issue (lft leg) have disappeared. I run much more efficiently as well. I can't imagine running in the junk I used before. I do have a pair of Brooks Launch's (neutral cushion) that I will be using for the Dick Collins this weekend but only because I am nursing a "blister-gone-bad" I gave myself while playing doctor. Other than that, it's the Katana's, Adios and soon to be out mt100s if they fit well. Anyway, great post and thread.

Mike S.

Erin said...

Thank you for this post! Any thoughts on trying barefoot running on a treadmill for those of us that live in cold, urban environments? I sustained a bad hip injury last season which I believe is from weak feet and years of heel striking in overly cushioned shoes, so I'm going to make the transition. Thank you for sharing your experience.

AndrewRad said...


It's particularly interesting how you alter your shoes. I agree that the number one issue with running and trail running shoes is the raised heel. You deal with that problem by simply slicing off the soles under the heels of your shoes. We need more flat soled running shoes in the market. My solution is wearing a minimalist shoe that isn't even meant for running, SANUK shoes. You can check out other minimalist shoes at barefoot footwear.

High Mesa Fitness® said...

Your experience is similar to mine. I remember those ol nike trainers and elites..ran 100 mile weeks injury free forever. The more bells and whistles and 'control' added to shoes the more injuries to follow.
At any rate I've enjoyed the Nike Frees since they came out, in particular the 3.0's but alas those are hard to find now and honestly I like adidas. I've had several pair of the adizero xt trail shoes but still wish they get rid of that darn rigid internal heel cup and make the shoe more flexible. If you know of any adidas shoe that is proximate to the free let me know.

wadaye said...

You really must try huaraches. I make one slightly bigger than my foot, have no knots under the toe becuase I use climbers tape and two holes at the front and sides to pull the climbers tape through to lock it.I run on trails, did 70km of Australias's toughest 175km GNW run in them but had to pull out when I got lost (and tired).

Anyway you'll find after about 6 months of fiddling with huaraches you'll get them absolutely perfect.

Eric said...

what counts as minimalist shoes anyway these days.. I do agree that the vibrams are very minimalist but what about other shoes that have light properties like the vivo barefoot shoes or the newton running shoes listed here as well.

29929blacktuesday said...

Hi - internet just lost my original post so I'll type it all over again! I'm a Traditional Runner (I use this as it describes the style better than Minimalist) and use 1940's style plimsolls (see link) to run on the Malvern Hills in the UK. They're unbelievably cheap and simple - flat rubber sole with a single layer canvas upper. Our Fell Running hero Bob Graham ( and his epic Bob Graham Round in 1932 in a pair of these after recceing each hill barefoot to save on wear of his precious shoes! Fabulous, original, authentic and injury-free. The ulimate... All the very best everyone and thanks for all you do Anton. Dave. link:

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Jenna Jones said...

Can’t say that the vibram shoe feels like barefoot running and barefoot walking. Not really minamilist from my point of view. Read more on research by this doctor Steven Robbins: . Enjoyed the conversation !

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Joshua said...

You should try Mizuno Wave Universe 3's. 3.6 oz. I just wore them on a rugged Bandit 50k in Simi Valley, CA and pounded the downhills with rocks and all at 5:00 m/m. My feet never felt better. Open toe box, my toes actually do "work." I run 100+ during the week and they provide traction, minimal protection from rocks and stones but still allow you to feel the run... josh

Rick said...

I recently started wearing a very cheap pair of sneakers ($5) for short runs. They have almost no arch support and very thin flexible sole. I like them a lot better than my VFF's. The question is this: One can easily spend up to $200 for some of these minimalist shoes. Why? Are a $200pair of Newtons really better than my $5 sneakers?

Rick said...

Recently I have been getting in a lot of short runs in a $5 pair of sneakers that have almost no arch support and thin flexible soles. I actually prefer them to my VFF's. With all these $100-200"minimilist" shoes on the market, I ask, how are they better than my $5 shoes? There's no doubt they are more attractive, but for $5, I'm not complaining.

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